Sunday, January 12, 2020

Analysis of Arguments for and Against the Institutions

The Bretton Woods twins, namely the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, have been the focus of attention for several years already since its inception. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development has been changed to its presently popular name of World Bank. It is the aim of this paper to make a general presentation and evaluation of the argument posed for and against the Bretton Woods institutions in relation to their influence on the sovereign decision making process of the different countries in the global economic arena.During its creation, the IMF and the World Bank has been absorbed with practices of neoliberal economy policies that sought to liberalize the market from the state and minimize government intervention in the premise that â€Å"the state itself was conceived as the problem rather than the solution† (Onis and Senses 2005: 264). It has been clearly pointed out by Onis and Senses (2005) that th e effects of strict adherence to the neoliberal practices proposed by the Bretton Woods institutions have led to problems for a lot of countries.Among them is Argentina who has fallen suddenly at the peak of its swing (Onis and Senses 2005). This was followed by a shift of the Bretton Woods institutions to rethinking the neoliberal practices they have imposed as a tight rope to the countries they have bestowed with different programmes. However, it is still stained with uncertainty as to whether their sincerity is real or not in the light of their actions (Onis and Senses 2005: 280).The arguments posed by the authors, Onis and Senses (2005), have been followed by concrete examples from countries that have adopted the neoliberal approaches hailed to be good by the Bretton Woods institutions but did not directly provide as to how and why there were failures on the part of the Bretton Woods institutions than what Stiglitz (2003) had done. Another counter-argument thrown towards the IMF , in particular, is its failure in the East Asian Crisis.It has not adhered to the objectives originally formulated by Keynes when it had begun, which was to adopt policies that are expansionary in nature and to provide for funding to developmental undertakings (Stiglitz, 2003). In fact, they have provided for policies that have been contractionary fiscal policies that either involved reducing public spending, increase in taxes, or adopting both. With regard to objectives, this argument stated by Stiglitz is valid for it has stated the whys of the failure of IMF with regard to objectives.The author also provided the answer to the question â€Å"how† by stating that the IMF has been accountable to a single stream of representatives, who are in turn becoming less and less accountable (Stiglitz 2003: 119). A good argument placed upon the World Bank has something to do with the fact that it has been able to learn from the mistakes of the IMF and was able to discuss the problems t hat have beset their organization (Stiglitz 2003). The World Bank, unlike the IMF, was accountable to a lot of sectors and, with its leaders, was able to discuss the problems and criticisms that have been pushed their way (Stiglitz 2003).This approach by the World Bank was better than the actions of the IMF, who actually blamed the governments for poor implementation. However, with regard to the aids given by the Bank to the developing countries, there are certain conditions such as policies that would pave the way for the success of the aid given (Stiglitz 2003: 124). Thus, this has rendered the aid more selective. These are among the several arguments placed and there is more coming from the different fields in the academe. These criticisms only show that the institutions formed Bretton Woods left some more room for improvement.In addition to this, these arguments have shown that the courses of action taken by these institutions had impacts that are felt by both the developing and the developed countries. References Onis, Z. and Senses, F. (2005), ‘Re-thinking the Emerging Post-Washington Consensus. ’ Development and Change 36, (2) 263-290. Stiglitz, J. (2003), ‘Democratizing the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank: Governance and Accountability. ’ Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 16, (1) 111-139.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Style Theory of Leadership - 2967 Words

According to Harold Koontz, â€Å"leadership is defined as an art or process of influencing people so that they strive willingly and enthusiastically towards attainment of group goals†. According to Yukl (1994), â€Å"leadership is a process which one member of a group influences other group members towards attainment of specific group goals†. Thus, leadership is a process of influencing the behavior of people by making them strive voluntarily towards achievement of organizational goals. The above definition focuses on certain important features of leadership- †¢ Leadership indicates ability of an individual to influence others †¢ It is a group process. A leader is of no use if he has no followers and similarly a group or an organization†¦show more content†¦Specifically, consideration was more strongly related to the individual. In other words, the followers or leaders who were high in consideration were more satisfied with their jobs and more motivated and also had more respect for their leader. Initiating structure was more related to higher levels of group and organizational productivity and more positive performance evaluations. In a large correlational study, Fleishman and Harris (1962) reported that turnover rate was negatively correlated with consideration, and positively associated with initiating structure, although they emphasized the nonlinearity of the relationships. Also grievance rates are higher when leaders are high on initiation. There appear to be certain critical levels beyond which increased Consideration or decreased Initiating Structure have no effect on turnover or grievance rate. In a summary of literature, Yukl (1989) reports that the effect of consideration has been confirmed, but the results of studies on initiating structure have not been clear or consistent. Michigan studies The University of Michigan leadership studies (Katz and Kahn, 1952; Katz, Maccoby, andShow MoreRelatedLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership857 Words   |  4 Pagesproject shows that leadership is defined in many ways. Characteristics of a good leader are questionable. Leadership styles and theories, such as servant leadership, collective leadership, and dictatorship vastly differ but still share similar attributes. While servant leadership and collective leadership theories similarly encompass specific attributes, the collective leadership theory still lacks vision and empowerment. Inversely, at the other extreme of leadership theories is dictatorship. UnlikeRead MoreLeadership Theories And Leadership Styles1512 Words   |  7 Pagesprovide examples surrounding various leadership theories and leadership styles that sustain the definition of a public leader. First, this paper will provide a definition of a public leader. Next, it determine two leadership theories and two leadership styles that support the definition of a public leader. Also, this paper will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership theories. Subsequently, it will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership styles. Further, this paper will utilize properRead MoreLeadership Style And Leadership Theory807 Words   |  4 Pagesresearch conducted on traits, skills, and characters relationships to leadership and followers. The paper discusses the common themes and conclusions addressed in all studies. The articles penned with the intention of examining the impact leadership style and leadership theory in areas such as individual identity, culture, and worldview. Mahdi, Mohd, and Almsafir (2014) argue there is a significantly strong relationship between the leadership behavior and organizational commitment. Also, the paper synthesizesRead MoreThe Theory Of Leadership Styles903 Words   |  4 Pagesphenomenon of leadership is based upon directing, influencing as well as motivat ing individuals for the purpose of implementing plans as well as running an organization. Leadership styles vary from person to person and is dependent upon the situations that the leader might be faced with (George, Sims, P. Sims, D., 2007). Basically, the leadership styles have been categorized into six types (i.e. commanding, visionary, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting and coaching leadership styles). All theseRead MoreThe Theories Of Leadership Styles1445 Words   |  6 PagesWhen developing a template to assess which leadership styles are best suited to mitigate the effects of a decline in financial compensation, it is imperative to understand leadership theory. One of the first pioneers in leadership theory was Kurt Lewin. Kurt Lewin (1890–1947), was a prominent figure in psychology in his generation. He provided a solid foundation to the teachings of organizational development. In many circles he was known as the father of organizational development. He was best knownRead MoreThe Theory Of Leadership Styles1649 Words   |  7 Pageshad compassion and a vision for their work and employees. On that note, there are three classical theories of leadership that have developed with the changing time: trait theories, behavioral theories, and contingency theories. In this analysis, I will be describing the theories, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to each. It is also important to question how the post-bureaucratic leadership strategies have changed since the initial bureaucratic era. I have used work by Colbert, Judge, ChoiRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership Essay873 Words   |  4 PagesGenerally, leadership is the art or process of influencing followers and subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. It helps an individuals or a group to identify its goals and assists in achieving the stated goals. Because of importance of leadership all kinds of group action, there are considerable number of researches and theories on leadership and many kinds of leadership styles like Greatman theory, power influence, Trait approach, Behavioral, Situational or Contingency approaches;Read MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership876 Words   |  4 Pagesbstract This paper is to define the definition of leadership, and how its breakdown of various leadership styles and theories. I will also focus on more than one leadership style on what is to believe the best aligns thoughts of what leadership should mean. The leadership style is a mixed character of leadership that combines the transformational and servant leadership theories in to Healthcare. An evaluation is made of the learner’s leadership characteristics and how they would enable the learnerRead MoreLeadership Styles And Leadership Theories993 Words   |  4 Pagesto the other two leadership styles, I scored next highest in the delegate category and the least amount in the authoritative category. In this paper I will give a comprehensive overview of leadership styles and leadership management theories and how they relate to my style. Lastly, I will discuss my type of work environment, and three key actions or behaviors that I must demonstrate to be a successful leader. Alignment with management and leadership theories Leadership theories include trait, attitudinalRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership1386 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership is known as the process of guiding groups, individuals and an organization in the establishment of goals as well as sustaining those goals. The concept of leadership incorporates a diversity of clarifications, leadership styles and theories. While looking at the leaders around us no matter if it’s our president or place of employment, we often find ourselves questioning exactly why these individuals shine in these positions. This essay will detail my leadership in relations of the transformational

Friday, December 27, 2019

Government and Market Failure Essay - 1687 Words

In micro-economics market failure is characterized by resource misallocation and subsequent Pareto inefficiency. Just as the invisible hand falters, so is the case that the unregulated markets are incapable of solving all economic problems. In laissez-faire economy, market models mainly monopolistic, perfect competition and oligopoly are expected to efficiently allocate resources for the â€Å"welfare benefit† of the society. However individualistic and selfish private interests divert the public benefits thereby prompting government intervention to correct the imperfection which may lead to disastrous economic impact. Although corrective intervention policies by government may not necessarily address the underlying imperfection induced by†¦show more content†¦Competition failure or monopoly may result from natural monopoly where it costs incurred in production becomes lower when only one firm is involved in production than several firms producing the same output. In a monopolist market under-production, higher prices become dominant contributing to market inefficiency. Winston cites cases of misuse of monopoly power can lead to market failures and sometimes may lead to acute shortage of essential commodities (130). Coordination failures by private markets are perceived to contribute significantly in inefficiency. Negative externalities like environmental pollution and positive externalities like focusing on public benefits and ignoring the private benefits significantly contribute to market failures. Fundamental questions have been raised to determine the appropriate time government intervention is required and the magnitude of inefficiency to warrant supposedly intervention or to let the market correct itself. Stiglitz, argued that inefficient government microeconomic policies to address the market gap often tends to exacerbate the existing problem or yield unproductive results in the economy (34). Market failure Correction The principal of Pareto efficiency dictates that market failure is a product of making other individuals worse than they were found. ToShow MoreRelatedGovernment Failure And Market Failure2000 Words   |  8 PagesGovernment failure and Market Failure Introduction Regulations imposed by the government in any economy determine the market efficiency and growth. Policies and laws governing the flow of goods and out flow determined the internal trade affairs. When the government formulates policies and regulations, which is the market conducive, efficiency is enhanced. In such instances, the outcomes of the market yields can be predicted. Such ability of the policies and regulations to enhance efficiency inRead MoreReasons for Market Failure and the Roles of Government1881 Words   |  8 PagesReasons for Market Failure and the Roles of Government To Improve the Market Outcomes What is market efficiency? Market efficiency is defined as all participants in a market can get the maximum benefits and used the minimum cost and effect to transact (, 2011). Besides that, the definition of market efficiency is covered by the market and investor group. In other words, efficiency refers to the productivity or the size of the economics pie. If the size of economicsRead MoreEssay about Market Failures: Government Intervention652 Words   |  3 Pagesbasis for the contention that governments should intervene to correct market failures? (Be sure to explain what market failures are and why they are significant without providing superficial, rote definitions.) Contrast this with the argument that laissez faire is preferable to intervention. (If possible, link this to the idea of government failure, the iron law of public policy, rent seeking, and unintended consequences.) Imagine a grading rubric in which failure is considered everything exceptRead MoreMarket and Government Failures in Reducing College Cost 1311 Words   |  6 Pagestuition costs remains. Another failure that allowed colleges to raise tuition is due to the major cuts from states leaving the colleges to support themselves. The state found other concerns as priority and to invest in according to the New York Times article, Obama Vows Action on College. When the state or federal government no longer advances in aiding colleges and universities where does that leave our country for the future? President Obama stated that the government would not continue to investRead MoreGovernment Intervention Lies Conviction Of The Existance Of Market Failure1177 Words   |  5 Pagesof the theory justifying the need for government intervention lies conviction of the existance of market failure, defects that make certain market situation, which by its nature is to aim to maximise satisfaction / utility and optimally allocate resources, it stops - in the sense of optimum Pareto- function properly (Francis M. Bator, 1958) . In other words, the market reduces the utility and waste resources. It must therefore step a mediator- usually government or legislative body- which will correctRead MoreThe Use of Cars Causes Market Failure. to Achieve an Efficient Use of Resources It Would Be Better If Governments Intervened to Affect Both the Production and the Use of Cars. Explain the Meaning of the Terms ‘Market923 Words   |  4 PagesThe use of cars causes market failure. To achieve an efficient use of resources it would be better if governments intervened to affect both the production and the use of cars. Explain the meaning of the terms ‘market failure’ and ‘the efficient use of resources’ and analyse whether economic theory can be used to support this argument. [25] Market failure exists when the operation of a market does not lead to economic efficiency. It is a situation where a free market does not produce the bestRead MoreMarket Failure And The Implications For Public Policy1653 Words   |  7 Pagesthe concept of Market Failure and the implications for Public Policy, the correlation, between the two is directly related to government intervention on market efficiency. Market Failure is discussed in the context of Pareto efficiency in the Free Market. Certain conditions must be met or Market Failures are inevitable and the government must intervene to correct the market. The first fundamental theorem of welfare economics asserts that under certain conditions which makes markets not Pareto efficientRead MoreMartket Failure Policy Essay920 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscuss market failures as one justification for government intervention in market relations. Define market failures and at least three distinct types of market failures. Provide thr ee concrete, specific examples of market failures and discuss policy instruments that might be proposed to address each market failure. What are the potential problems or challenges associated with each instrument that might make its use difficult? It has been long believed by many theorists that pure free market economyRead MoreEco/365651 Words   |  3 PagesWhat is an externality? Provide at least three examples. How does one of the examples you provided affect the market outcome? What is the role of government in addressing the implications of an externality you provided as an example? Is it possible that a government’s solution to a market failure would worsen the failure? Explain your answer. Externality is defined as an effect of a decision on a third party not taken into account by the decision maker. There are two types of externalities beingRead MoreMarket Analysis : Market Failure1728 Words   |  7 PagesMarket Failure Markets are the institutions where the exchange of goods and services among individuals collective agents occurs. The exchange of these goods and services utilizes money as the medium through which equivalence of worth and value is given to the goods and services (Keech and Munger 4). This leads to the formation of prices given for the goods and services. Additionally, markets may be categorized in accordance with the commodities and services traded in them where these categories entail

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Analysis of four types of conflict in John Steinbecks...

In John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath, the journey of the Joad family is riddled with conflict. The family experiences all of the four major types of conflicts: man vs. himself, man vs. society, man vs. nature, and man vs. man. In the case of The Grapes of Wrath, man represents the Joad family as a single unit. They experience conflict within the family itself, with the society they are coming from as well as the one they are going to, and with nature and the elements. The man vs. man conflict is usually just a more specific example of one of the other areas of conflict. The most prevalent conflict in the novel is man vs. society. The first example is the Joads being forced off their land in Oklahoma. The corporations are becoming†¦show more content†¦The next big loss the family suffers is Noah leaving while the family is staying at the river. Ma, I got somepin to tell ya. Noah-he went on down the river. He aint a-goin on (294). This solidifies the solid decline of the family state of the Joads. Familys fallin apart (294). The final place the man vs. himself conflict arises is in the case of the blacklist. Toms natural instinct is to become a leader, and lead the people to revolt against the way the society is working in the west. When the man Tom meets at the camp tells him that if he does that, he will be blacklisted, in which case he wont be able to get work anywhere, and his family could quite possibly starve. Well, you jus open your trap about us folks getting together, an youll see. They take your pitcher an send it all over. Then you cant get work nowhere. An if you got kids-- (336). This represents a man vs. himself conflict because Tom has to resist his instincts to start a revolt, and just lay low. The man vs. man conflict is usually a representations of a different conflict. In The Grapes of Wrath, the people the Joad family has conflicts with are usually some sort of personifications of another area of conflict, for example, society. When the Joads are staying at the hooverville, and Tom and Jim Casy attack the police officer, they arent attacking him because they have a disagreement with the man himself as much as because that police officer

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Fraudulent The Conduct Of Particular Agentsâ€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Fraudulent The Conduct Of Particular Agents? Answer: Introducation Even though the company is a legal entity s per s. 124 Corporations Act 2001 but yet the decisions on the behalf of the same are taken by the top management usually the CEO or MD (Managing Director). At times, there are certain civil or criminal liabilities that may arise for the company due to the inappropriate or fraudulent conduct of particular agents. In such a situation, the concept to directing mind and will is found useful in order to confer liability on the person or persons who collectively represent the mind of the company and are responsible for the negligence or fraud committed. The directing mind of the company usually refers to the top management personnel who has the requisite authority from the board of directors and hence directs the company into a particular director for achieving stated goals (Baxt, Fletcher and Fridman, 2008). The directing mind and will in the context of a company would refer to any individual who is acting as the agent of the company and has a sphere of authority within which he/she is supposed to act. This concept tends to highlight that the state of mind of the company essentially refers to that of the agents particularly the top management that has the maximum control. As a result, any liability arising from such actions would essentially not be limited to company but the agent whose mind and will were involved in the underlying action. However, there are certain safeguards particularly for the top management available such as the business judgement rule in order to escape liability (Ciro and Symes, 2013). One of the key advantages of the company business structure over other business structures (partnership, sole trader) is that the liability is limited to the assets of the company and the personal assets of the owners cannot be liquidated for the settlement of company dues unless there is a personal guarantee. However, in certain cases or situations, it is possible that court ignores the limited liability and holds the shareholders or owners as responsible for the company outstanding liabilities. This is called as piercing of the corporate veil and is usually carried out in limited circumstances (Cassidy, 2013). Some of these circumstances include serious corporate frauds, corporate asset and personal asset intermingling, corporate form abuse to exploit limited liability protection, under-capitalization of the firm and failure to distinguish between the identity of the company and the respective owners. A simple example where the piercing of corporate veil would be done by the court is where a former employee of a company under non-competence clause sets up a company in the same business with the intent to limiting personal liability. Another instance could be when there is lack of adequate corporate records with regards to assets and liabilities which hint towards non-separation of corporate and personal assets. Also, companies which are put in place to carry fraudulent activities are prime candidates of corporate veil piercing since company structure is used with the intention of escaping liabilities arising on account of fraud (Fisher, Anderson and Dickfos, 2009). References Baxt, R., Fletcher, K.L. and Fridman, S. (2008) Corporations and Associations Cases and Materials. 10th edn. Butterworths: LexisNexis Australia. Cassidy, J. (2013) Corporations Law Text and Essential Cases. 4th edn. Sydney: Federation Press. Ciro, T. and Symes, C. (2013) Corporations Law in Principle. 9th edn. Sydney: LBC Thomson Reuters. Fisher, S., Anderson, C. and Dickfos, (2009) Corporations Law - Butterworths Tutorial Series. 3rd edn. Butterworths, Sydney: LexisNexis Australia.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

My Largest Leap free essay sample

When I was in second grade, my single greatest fantasy was to fly like a bird. I imagined soaring in the summertime, the cool breeze fluttering across my face gently whisking away my sweat. As I grew older, I marked flying off as part of my childhood imagination, being completely out of the realm of possibility. Two days after my eighteenth birthday, I found myself looking out of an airplane into a 10,000 foot abyss. Very soon, my childhood fantasy would become a reality. Once the engines came to life, I knew there was no escape. In 20 minutes I would be jumping out of this airplane. As I peered out the window, I could see my brothers videotaping the plane as it took off, now they were only distant figurines standing next to the runway. In the plane, we were a jigsaw puzzle of people and equipment. The cabin barely had enough room for five people: four jumpers and one pilot. We will write a custom essay sample on My Largest Leap or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Looking across at my jump mate, who had successfully completed over 2400 jumps, I saw a man completely yielding himself to chance, a man you would not expect to be scared, but from the look in his eyes, he was. I realized that I was too. As the door to our tiny Cessna was ripped open, the reality of the situation hit me. Immediately chaos reigned. The wind screamed past my ears. The cabin temperature dropped instantaneously. I felt like I was in a refrigerator. As we crawled to the jump position, I could feel my heart beat in my toes. Looking out of an airplane is different when there is no window. Generally, I do not scream out loud when I am scared, but as my feet fell from the plane, my mind was shouting 1,000 thoughts per second. The first couple seconds were the most intense of all; my eyelids stretched open and I was falling into a complete void. Time became insignificant. However, once we reached terminal velocity, the support of the wind resistance was comforting. After a few seconds, I found myself asking, â€Å"Why did I do this?† The only responses that came to mind were more questions. Did I jump because of the endless lure of the sky? Was it to test my courage? Was it to seek a new challenge? Ripping through the sky at 165 miles per hour, I did not find my answer. A couple thousand feet later and the end to my adventure was in sight. The parachute bloomed and all my worries lifted away. Suddenly, the sky filled with silence; the warmth of blood radiated throughout my body. I looked over my right shoulder and expected to see a flock of seagulls flying next to me. I was in paradise. Floating down to the landing site, I took it all in. My reunion with the Earth came quickly. I landed with a thump as my family ran to greet me. I clicked open my harness and stood up, finally feeling the full weight of gravity. As I peered around the field and drew in my first breath, I felt a chill race up my spine. Simply having my feet on the ground again took on a new meaning. On reflection, it may have been the childhood dream which initiated my interest, but it was the enticement of the challenge which made me jump. Since entering high school, I have felt the need to challenge myself and to constantly push my limits. In this respect, skydiving has unlocked another door for me to explore. Although I may not always jump out of airplanes, I will continue to leap at the chance to face a challenge.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Synthesis of Certain Derivatives of Schiffbases of Isoniazid and Its in-Vitro Assay Against Tuberculosis - Multi and Extremely Drug Resistance Strains free essay sample

Microbiological Studies A definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis can only be made my culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms from a specimen taken from the patient (Most often sputum, but may also include pus, cerebero spinal fluid (CSF)), biopsied tissue, etc. Sputum smears and cultures should be done for acid-fast bacilli. The preferred method for the identification is fluorescence microscopy which is more sensitive than conventional Ziehl- Neelson staining denoted by Steingart et al. , 2006 6. If sputum is not produced, specimens can be obtained by gastric washings, an laryngeal swab, bronchoscopy with broncho alveolar lavage or fine needle aspiration of a collection. A comparative study found that inducing three sputum samples is more sensitive than three gastric washings. Many types of culture media are available. Traditionally Lowenstein –Jensen (LJ), Kirchner or Middle Brook media (7H9, 7H10, 7H11 and 7H12) are used for cultivating of Mycobacterial species. A culture of the acid-fast bacilli distinguishes the various forms of Mycobacteria. We will write a custom essay sample on Synthesis of Certain Derivatives of Schiffbases of Isoniazid and Its in-Vitro Assay Against Tuberculosis Multi and Extremely Drug Resistance Strains or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page New automated systems that are faster include BACTEC 460 TB, BACTEC 9000 and the Mycobacterial growth Indicator tube (MGIT). The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) culture may be faster and more accurate method. Drugs Used In Tuberculosis in the current scenario Active tuberculosis will kill about two of every three people affected if left untreated. Treated tuberculosis if taken up early has a mortality rate of less than 5%. The standard short course treatment for tuberculosis comprises of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol for two months, then Isoniazid and Rifampicin alone for a further four months. For latent tuberculosis, the standard treatment is six to nine months of Isoniazid alone. Drug regimens are abbreviated in a standardized manner. a). Streptomycin is STM or S b) Isoniazid is INH or H c) Rifampicin is RMP or R d) Ethambutol is EMB or E e) Pyrazinamide is PZA or Z. a)According to WHO norms, there are six classes of second line drugs that are used for the treatment of tuberculosis. A drug may be classified as second line instead of first line for one of two possible reasons; it may be less effective than the first line drugs or it may produce toxic side –effects. They are classified based on their chemical nucleus: Aminoglycosides – Amikacin and Kanamycin b)Polypeptides – Capreomycin c)Fluoroquinolones – Ciprofloxacin d)Thioamides – Ethionamide, Prothionamide and Cycloserine. e)Para-amino Salicylic acid. Tuberculosis has been treated by combination therapy over fifty years. Single drug treatment is ineffective and regimens that use only single drugs result in the rapid development of resistance and thus treatment results in failure. The rationale for using multiple drugs to treat tuberculosis is based on simple probability. The frequency of spontaneous mutations that confer resistance to an individual drug is well known: 1 in 10 7 for Ethambutol (EMB); 1 in 108 for streptomycin (STM) and Isoniazid (INH); 1 in 10 10 for Rifampicin (RMP). A patient with extensive pulmonary tuberculosis has approximately 10 12 bacteria in his body and therefore will probably be harbouring approximately 10 5 Ethambutol resistant bacteria, 10 4 Streptomycin resistant bacteria, 104 Isoniazid resistant bacteria and 102 Rifampicin resistant bacteria respectively. DOTS stands for ‘Directly Observed Therapy, Short course’ and is a major plank in the WHO global tuberculosis eradication programme. The WHO advises that all tuberculosis patients should have atleast the first two months of their drug therapy should be observed with the aid of observer within that society. DOTS is used with intermittent dosing – Thrice weekly (Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide) or twice weekly. The relative incidence of major adverse effects has been carefully described . a)Isoniazid – Hepatitis, Neuropathy – 0. 49%. )Rifampicin – Skin rash, Thrombocytopenia and Hepatitis – 0. 43 % c)Pyrazinamide – Skin rash and Hepatitis 1. 48 % d)Streptomycin – Vertigo 0. 43 % Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR and XDR – TB) Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis that is resistant at least to Isoniazid and Rifampicin isolates. In the year 2006 â€Å"Extensively- Dr ug Resistant Tuberculosis† (XDR-TB) has emerged and defined as multi drug resistant tuberculosis that is resistant to quinolones and also to any one of kanamycin, capreomycin or amikacin. A 1997 survey of 35 countries found that 2% of the tuberculosis populations are infected by drug – resistant tuberculosis. The highest rates were in USSR, The Baltic states, Argentina, India and China. In 2006, MDR –TB in New York city has been increased to 20-30%. Annual risk of mortality rates increases by 10-15%. There is currently an epidemic of XDR-TB in South Africa. The outbreak was first reported as a cluster of 53 patients in a rural hospital in Kwazulu –Natal of whom 52 died . The treatment and prognosis of MDR-TB are much more akin to that of cancer than to that for infection. In these aspects, molecular manipulation is a productive source of new drugs. This research work pertains to the modification of Schiff bases on isoniazid to explore the new drugs with a desire to obtain highly potent, more specific and less toxic drugs. In the foregoing literature retrieval, it had been observed that the drug design can be performed by molecular manipulation and resulting in new productive drugs. The biological study of natural products with medicinally useful property and some of the chemical structure and its analogs had furnished to lead compounds, and its variation in the biological behavior. The pre-existing tuberculosis had made a challenging effect of medicinal chemists resulting in the extreme drug resistance. The performance of molecular manipulation still existed in a major line approach for the discovery of new drug analogues. To synthesize a derivative, an intermediate step has to be performed and to proceed for the further molecular manipulation. Combination of two or more active moieties in to one is a common procedure of manipulation and this can be possibly result in augmenting the activity, removal of untoward side effects and particularly to prevent development of resistance by the infectious microorganisms. Abundant literature support were available with regard to the study of Schiff bases as potent antibacterial, antifungal, antihypertensive, antiviral and anticancer perspectives. Schiff bases were the intermediate for the synthesis of azetidine -2 4- ones, thiazolidine -2 4- ones, triazoles tetrazoles. It was interesting to observe that some analogues of Schiff bases were combined with other moieties like phenothiazines,hydrazines and some hydrazide derivatives of carboxylic acid resulting in a better performance in their respective biological activities. Hence, it was our interest to associate the Schiff bases with the primary drug isoniazid. Since Isoniazid is a well known antitubercular drug. As a vast number of reports were been available regarding the antitubercular perspectives of the isoniazid, there is still lacuna existing in the study of Schiff bases in the multi drug and extremely drug resistant M. tb strains. This study will full fill the properties of Schiff bases relevant to the prevailing drug resistant tuberculosis. Biological activities of Schiff bases Schiff bases are of interest and its important moiety which is associated with biological activity. Initially, most of the research program has been conducted to explore the antimicrobial perspectives of Schiff base derivatives. Based on the intermediate Schiff base various molecular manipulation were attempted to investigate and discover an effective antibacterials, antifungals antiviral agents. In this preview of literature the various activities of Schiff bases pertaining to antibacterial perspectives has been studied. 1. Hearn et. al. , 2003 7 performed enzymatic acylation of the antitubercular isoniazid (INH) by N-acetyl transferases reduces therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Since it dealt with the major metabolic pathway for INH in human beings, many of these derivatives were prepared and screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mice. They conclude the structural cogners of metabolites of INH may serve as significant leads in antitubercular drug discovery and in the exploration of the mode of action of INH. 2. Tarek Aboul fadi et. al. , 2003 8 had synthesized N- alkyl derivative of INH and the Pharmacokinetic studies were been carried out in the bovine and sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that the rate and extent absorption of the tested derivatives. They show relative bioavailability of 183. 15 and 443. 25 respectively. 3. Sultana et. al. , 2007 9 studied the synthesis of hydrazones. The study afforded to the hitherto unreported 1-(4-chloro benzylidene) – hydrazinophthalazine, 1- nitrobenzylidene hydrazine phthalazine. , 3-(4-Chlorophenyl) –S-Triazolo (3,4-a) phthalazine. These structures were confirmed by spectroscopic techniques – IR, UV, H-NMR, EIMS, FD HRMS. Anti hypertensive activity were been evaluated. 4. Koussi and Abdel rahman. , 2006 10 illustrated certain novel Schiff bases of 4- methyl-1,2,4 –triazole -3-mercaptoacetic acid hydrazide were synthesized and their chemical identities were elucidated by elemental analyses. IR, H-NMR,13- C-NMR and mass spectral data. The percentage of the geometrical isomers was elucidated using the 1-H NMR. The synthesized compounds were selected for screening at the tuberculosis antimicrobial acquisition and co-ordination facility against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV strain in which they showed moderate activity at a concentration of 625 mg/mL. . Jiang et. al. , 2003 11 studied the series of chemically modified aryl- aldehyde Schiff bases has been synthesized and tested for their antioxidant activity and radiation protection. It was observed that disulfide –containing aryl –aldehyde schiff base exhibited potent free radical scavenging, antioxidation and radioprotective activities. 6. Pandeya et. al. ,1999 12 synthesized antib acterial, antifungal and anti human immunodeficiency virus activities of Schiff and Mannich bases derived from isatin derivatives and N – (4-(4’ chlorophenyl) thiazolyl thiosemi carbazide. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of compounds was done by agar dilution method. 7. Jayasekar et. al. , 1997 13 synthesized the Schiff bases of mesalazine and studied the anti inflammatory activity. The inhibition shows about 50-60% of the potency of the drug. In the present study, we had investigated certain Schiff base derivatives modified from isoniazid and it has screened for Extreme drug-resistant and Multidrug resistant tuberculosis strain procured from the patients suffering from tuberculosis. Bibilography: 1. Rothschild, B. , Martin, L. , Bercovier, L. G. , Gal, B. G. , Blatt, G. C. , Donoghue, H. , Spigelman, M and Brittain, D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from an extinct bison dated 17,000 years before the present. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30(3) : 305-311 ( 2001). 2. Pearce-Duvet, J. The origin of human pathogens evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 31(3) : 369-382 (2006). 3. 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